The Spanish legal system recognises the right to self-produce and self-consume renewable energy in multiple forms, which allows for flexibility in the self-consumption design.
First, consumers can install generation units and self-consume what they generated (individual self-consumption - prosumers). Consumers can decide between two modalities: “with surplus” or “without surplus”. In the former case, any energy surplus can be compensated (through the electric bill) or sold on the market. In the later modality, the prosumer must install an anti-spill mechanism to prevent the injection of any energy surplus. Storage systems are allowed in all modalities.
Second, self-consumption can also be collective, i.e., several consumers are associated with one or multiple RE generation units (energy sharing and energy communities). Collective self-consumption can also adopt a “with or without surplus” modality. Prosumers can also share energy through internal networks but also using the public grid, which allows for energy sharing between buildings. There are, however, geographical limits.
Renewable Energy Communities, as well as Citizen Energy Communities, are not fully regulated. RDL 23/2020 partially transposed the RED II EU Directive, since it adopted the definition of these communities and entitled them to participate in auctions. A further regulation is required. However, there are already community-led projects to share electricity, either under a cooperative form or under the collective self-consumption regime.
Summary of regulations
- Law 24/2013
- RDL 15/2018
- RD 244/2019
- Directorate General for Energy Policy and Mines